Politics, reflection on the function of poetry and moments of satisfaction and hope contrasted with fear of the impersonal forces of the state are further topics in the later poems. In taking up a Third World theme, it marks a significant departure from what was in danger of becoming a new provincialism and can be compared with similar works by Uwe Timm and F. The play Rotter concerns the self-imposed conformity of an underprivileged figure determined to prove himself in both the Third Reich and the early years of reconstruction.
Liebe macht Tod is a variation of Romeo and Juliet. Braun, Felix — A fervent literary disciple of Hofmannsthal, Felix Braun was a minor writer associated with the Viennese cultural scene at the turn of the century his autobiography Das Licht der Welt. Geschichte eines Versuches, als Dichter zu leben gives a sympathetic and informative account of meetings with Hofmannsthal, Rilke, Wildgans, Ginzkey, Mell, Stefan Zweig, Werfel and others.
He travelled widely, living in Italy and also in exile in England. His verse dramas betray much sensitivity but little dramatic talent: Braun was also an accomplished anthologist: The collections Wir und nicht sie , Gedichte , extended and Gegen die symmetrische Welt are marked by mastery of numerous short forms and a critical dialogue with earlier German poets. The dialectic of past and present, of Utopian hope and reality is treated in manifold variations, culminating in the last volume in fragmentary forms which appear to reflect a fear of stagnation.
More recently he has widened this latter theme to embrace revolutionary change elsewhere and at different periods and developed more radical approaches to it: His continuing debt to his literary predecessors is evident in his other plays: Bodenloser Satz presents the decline of the GDR through an account of environmental pollution.
Texte in zeitlicher Folge appeared in eight volumes between and Brecht, Bertolt — Brecht was one of a group of young dramatists who emerged during the early years of the Weimar Republic and whose works frequently awarded the Kleist prize created theatrical scandals by their fearless outspokenness and reluctance to conform to accepted standards.
Through collaboration with Feuchtwanger and others Brecht, with cunning and undeniable talent, kept abreast of the modern techniques of a man like Piscator. It was after the enormous success of this work, a work that the audience seemed bent on enjoying at all costs, that Brecht tended to the extremes of dogmatism which he felt were necessary to convey his social message: What makes Mann ist Mann , the Dreigroschenoper and Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny — 9 such good entertainment is the plenitude of ebullient characters, rooted in a fantastic Victorian, Anglo-American or Anglo-Indian world never found in reality but culled from the legends of the roaring twenties, or the heyday of the British Raj; Brecht never ceased to admire the world of boxers, lumberjacks, colonial soldiers and gangsters, which he may, in part, have derived from the expressionist cult of vital, atavistic forces.
Brecht needed also the stimulus of collaboration, which stemmed from a sincere desire to discuss and learn rather than from paucity of invention, as the critic Alfred Kerr claimed, who sought constantly to detect plagiarism. Brecht wrote closely with Klabund, who would later give Brecht the idea for Der kaukasische Kreidekreis. After the burning of the Reichstag Brecht fled to Vienna; he attended the meeting at Sanary-sur-mer of exiled writers, and thence moved to Denmark, to the province of Svendborg, where he watched events in Germany most closely.
Brecht continued to work relentlessly: A-Z 43 The view that Brecht, deprived of a theatre, turned his attention to formulating a Marxist aesthetic of drama, a theoretically determined system, is erroneous: His theoretical writings reflect the way in which he meditated upon his own work: The tone is light, frequently wryly humorous, often curious, but always allowing for movement and renewal; a rare intelligence is at work which questions, worries, retreats, adapts and restates. Theatre, literature and politics, society and even landscape are discussed: The Messingkauf dialogues, a four-handed conversation piece, relate more directly to theatrical problems, and stress above all the need for lightness of touch, Spiel, and a kind of elegance in acting which contains sobriety within it.
The rapier thrust is preferred to the sabre blow, the elliptical precision of Chinese art to Germanic ponderousness and an athletic form of acting to the pretentiously histrionic. This was to be the play with which the Berliner Ensemble opened in ; it has remained in the repertoire ever since and has been staged by the leading theatres throughout the world. Every scene, and there are twelve of them, is supposed to stand as a self-contained unit indeed, in theory they should be virtually interchangeable , but a cumulative effect is undeniable, and there are moments that are conventionally dramatic, which enthral, rather than alienate, the audience.
Brecht did not approve of the reactions of the audience after the first performance: He had been forced, he A companion to twentieth-century german literature 44 claimed, to overstate the differences between the conventional theatre and his own in order that certain abuses be rectified: As early as Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny he had, in fact, stressed that an overschematic differentiation between dramatic and epic was unsuitable: In he had written a conventional play—admittedly not one of his best—on Aristotelian lines, Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar, which provided opportunity for splendid acting on the part of the heroine.
Brecht turned on the critics and admonished them to look at his plays as plays, without preconceived ideas or theories. Brecht utterly rejected the Christian idea of original sin: His initial concern was to show Galileo as a man determined to live, whose cunning recantation enables the truth to be heard despite the strictures of the Church. The issues are intellectual, but the play provides magnificent theatre, especially in the scene of the dressing of the Pope, the transformation of man to institution as each layer of clothing is added.
The Soviet purges sickened him, as did the American situation: There is undoubtedly a sense of isolation, but not of paralysis: The theme of goodness occupied him once again, but the basic theme concerns the rightness of giving the child or the disputed land to those best able to tend or cultivate it.
The play is most successful in the portrayal of the judge Azdak, a figure compounded of the vitality and amoral zest of Baal, of Puntila and, to a lesser extent, of Galileo himself. Brecht returned to Europe at the end of The setting up of his own Theater am Schiffbauerdamm brought little comfort: It is perhaps significant that Brecht wrote nothing of original merit for the theatre after his return to East Berlin; he adapted, produced and modified, turning his attention, amongst other things, to Waiting for Godot and Pineapple Poll.
He withdrew again into poetry and wrote, in the Buckower Elegien, some of his finest. With economy, grace and sobriety he evoked a world of trees and water, silence and serenity, far from the turmoil of Berlin. Before his premature death in he had suggested that his epitaph might contain the lines: The following editions of his work should be noted: A companion to twentieth-century german literature 46 Brinkmann, Rolf Dieter —75 Brinkmann, whose early death in a road accident on a visit to London put an end to a career which may or may not have been in the doldrums, began in association with the Cologne realists Wellershoff, Herburger, Elsner, etc.
Never political, he combined crude vitalism, linguistic virtuosity and an obsession with the surface detail of everyday life; only the last of these features, however, was taken up and developed by others e. While his poetry already seems dated and undisciplined, his final major prose work Rom. Blicke may prove to be a seminal work in its combination of verbal and photographic commentary, besides maintaining the strong German tradition of literature portraying the metropolis.
Britting, Georg — Poet, playwright and writer of narrative prose, Britting started to write after the First World War he was badly wounded in He collaborated on many expressionist journals Die rote Erde, Der Sturmreiter, Der silberne Spiegel and edited his own, Die Sichel, with Josef Achmann, who contributed the graphic designs.
Britting greatly admired Georg Heym; he also wrote grotesque versions of biblical themes Hiob, Kain, Jor auf der Flucht, etc. During the Second World War Britting turned increasingly to nature poetry, leaving behind the excesses of expressionism and the parodistic elements of Hamlet. Short stories also appeared: Lob des Weines, a collection of twenty poems, appeared in Britting turned to traditional themes and structures, although his imagery remained fresh and striking. Broch insisted upon an intellectualization of the novel, on working out, by sheer intellectual effort, the troubles of the world.
Theoretical essays alternated with works of imagination: Both Broch and Musil embarked upon vast novels that would encompass the problems of the age, combining rationalism and mysticism. The Schlafwander trilogy —2 , encyclopedic and polyhistorical novels, have as their concern the disintegration of values and the decay of European civilization in the period — The first, Pasenow oder die Romantik, has been compared with Fontane, but the secure ground of the nineteenth century has been left far behind: The second, Esch oder die Anarchie, portrays the insubstantiality of the existence of the small book-keeper Esch, who is able neither to escape from Europe nor to come to terms with it; the third, Huguenau oder die Sachlichkeit, portrays violence and anarchic forces which destroy the narcissistic world of the heroine.
The realization of the helplessness of the word when faced by the unspeakable will be a concern of many writers in the twentieth century, especially in German-speaking countries. The fourth novel, Die Schuldlosen , treats twentieth-century themes and uses certain dates , and as points of reference: The novel is uncomfortably suspended between political allegory and romantic myth. The character of Mutter Gisson with her Demeterlike qualities fails to convince, the symbolism being forced and obtrusive, but the description of mass psychology is masterful.
The speculative study on A companion to twentieth-century german literature 48 Massenpsychologie stands comparison with the essay Masse und Macht by Elias Canetti as one of the most perceptive analyses of the relationship between the individual self and the corporate whole.
Broch, of Jewish parentage, was arrested when the Nazis invaded Austria, but was released on the intervention of writers like James Joyce. He settled in America and wrote his last novels there. The Gesammelte Schriften ten vols appeared between and reprinted ; the Kommentierte Werkausgabe 13—17 vols appeared from to His early story Tod den Toten!
As a Jew, Brod became a Zionist in , and he became especially interested in the more conservative faith of his co-religionists from the eastern provinces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Brod emigrated to Tel Aviv in and died there in In that year his autobiography Streitbares Leben appeared, which contains enlightening references to Kafka and also to Franz Werfel, of whose conversion to Christianity see Das Lied von Bernadette Brod did not approve.
He produced three volumes of war poetry, Aus meiner Kriegszeit. Gedichte , Kamerad, als wir marschierten. Kriegsgedichte and Soldaten der Erde. A war novel, Bunker Geschichte einer Kameradschaft , was widely read it was translated into English as Pillbox Gesamtausgabe der Gedichte in Eine Auswahl der Gedichte appeared in Bronnen, Arnolt originally Bronner, — Dramatist and novelist, Bronnen was one of the most extreme of the young talented writers who made the opening years of the Weimar Republic a fascinating and often disturbing experience. His play Vatermord written in , performed in Berlin in was the first of many scandals that surrounded his name; the portrayal of brutal violence and uninhibited sexuality outraged the audience.
Die Geburt der Jugend is a chaotic description of anarchic youth; the older generation is annihilated by sexually demented adolescents. In his comedy Die Exzesse the erotic desires of the woman, Hildegarde, find satisfaction in contemplation of intercourse with a goat.
Katalaunische Schlacht looks back to the war as a time of frenzied and erotic ecstasy. Rheinische Rebellen is an overtly nationalist play; Ostpolzug , a monodrama, fuses ancient and modern in its portrayal of Alexander the Great. Bronnen worked for the film industry in the s, also the Reichsrundfunkgesellschaft.
His relations with the Nazis were, however, strained. His autobiography Arnolt Bronnen gibt zu Protokoll appeared in ; Tage mit Brecht posthumously in Bruckner, Ferdinand pseudonym of Theodor Tagger, — Primarily a dramatist, Bruckner achieved fame in with his play Krankheit der Jugend, a crass and naturalistic portrayal of adolescent sexuality, much indebted to Freud. Bruckner used techniques made famous by Erwin Piscator; his greatest success was Elisabeth von England , where the stage is again split between the two realms, Catholic Madrid and Protestant London, with both antagonists praying to the same god for victory.
Bruckner also turned his attention, with less success, to classical themes Timon and Pyrrhus und Andromache perf. A very successful play was Die Rassen , one which exploits the generation conflict and also the tension between Jew and Aryan. Bruckner emigrated to America in and returned to Europe in , spending the last years of his life in Berlin. Dramatische Werke and Schauspiele nach historischen Studien were both published in An edition of Dramen appeared in Brust was helped by Kurt Wolff; he lived in isolation in Memel and moved to Cranz after the Lithuanian occupation.
Brust shares with many expressionists a predilection for crass and often shocking climaxes. Brust turned towards a portrayal of pseudoreligious experiences in a series of other plays Cordatus. He died in obscurity, isolation and poverty at the age of forty-three; the Nazis initially tolerated his writing, believing him to be an acceptable poet of East Prussian life, although later his work was condemned as degenerate.
The Dramen — ed. Horst Denkler appeared in Since then he has written stories Ein schwarzer, abgrundtiefer See , extended and Babylon and novels which concentrate on human foibles and idiosyncrasies in domestic and professional contexts, although social and political pressures, implicitly criticized, are present in various forms. Essays Kritiken Glossen Unpolitische Betrachtungen zu Literatur und Politik demonstrate individual interests Haiti, Alejo Carpentier and more general concerns of his generation ecology, post-history, apocalypse , the latter present also in Bericht aus dem Innern der Unruhe.
Gorlebener Tagebuch , on demonstrations against nuclear power. Central to the rest of his work is his relationship to the American continent and in particular Haiti, which he visited for the first time in and where he has ancestral links. In the reportages Aus der neuen Welt. An informative document on Burckhardt is the Festschrift which appeared on his seventieth birthday, Dauer im Wechsel Burger, Hermann —89 Burger studied in Zurich, wrote dissertations on Paul Celan and contemporary Swiss literature and taught for a while at the Federal Technical University in Zurich.
His chief works, Schilten. Burger shares with the Austrian Thomas Bernhard and with other contemporary Swiss writers e. Meyer the theme of death as the ultimate threat to personal identity, which he treats with an even greater degree of linguistic virtuosity and reflective intensity. He committed suicide in Brunsloben and Menzenmang volume I and volume II, chapters 1—7 of the planned tetralogy Brenner on the scion of a cigar manufacturing dynasty in search of his childhood appeared in and Der unsichtbare Held, a Nibelungen drama, appeared in the same year. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 54 Burte published poems in Alemannic dialect Madlee ; a further anthology appeared in Die Seele des Maien.
Burte received much acclaim for his work, the Kleist prize for Wildfeber and other distinctions during the Third Reich. The sinologist Peter Kien, obsessed by his own private library, and retreating ever further into a state of solipsism, is ultimately destroyed by fire, ancient symbol of transformation. The other characters, Pfaff, Theresa Krumbholz and Fischerle, are also utterly self-centred and convinced of their own importance.
The idea for the novel came to Canetti in when he witnessed the burning of the Palace of Justice by a mob in Vienna. Canetti moved to Paris in and to London in the following year. In he published Masse und Macht, a sociological, anthropological study of crowds and power: A collection of aphorisms made between and , Aufzeichnungen, appeared in Das Geheimnis der Uhr.
Aufzeichnungen — appeared in In Canetti was awarded the Nobel prize for literature. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 56 Carossa, Hans — Son of a doctor, Hans Carossa studied medicine in Munich and Leipzig, then settled as a medical practitioner in Bavaria.
Verwandlungen einer Jugend is a less successful sequel. The novel Geheimnisse des reifen Lebens uses the diary form to explore human relationships. After the war Carossa attempted to explain his situation at that time in Ungleiche Welten Further autobiographical details of his life appeared in Aufzeichnungen aus Italien ; a scattering of short stories appeared in the s. His poetry is unassuming and traditional: In his work Carossa eschews modernist experimentation; he appealed to the educated middle-class German reader with his cultivation of humanistic values derived from Goethe. Unlike his parents Celan escaped deportation when his home was occupied by the Nazis, but awareness of the Holocaust is at the centre of his work, his approach to the problems of language and communication in general long a preoccupation of writers from the linguistic melting-pot of Central Europe and the Balkans being linked to the impossibility of conveying the extreme physical and existential exposure of the persecuted.
These, together with translations of twentyone sonnets by Shakespeare and poems by Char, Supervielle, Michaux, Yessenin, Mandelstam, Block and others, were assembled in the provisional Gesammelte Werke in five volumes. Despite the increasing number of exegeses see the Celan-Jahrbuch: He was a man of mystical tendency whose experience of the Holocaust placed obstacles in the way to religious enlightenment; the distortion and reversal of normal syntactical relationships which are a marked feature of his work are related to this central paradox.
However, he remained attached to Jewish culture, as is evident especially in late poems set in Jerusalem. Gesammelte Werke five volumes appeared in His defence of members of the Baader-Meinhof group during the seventies influenced along with Kafka the fragmentary novel Die Herren des Morgengrauens He has also produced works which owe their origin to experiences in Italy Malavita. Mafia zwischen A companion to twentieth-century german literature 58 gestern und morgen and Briganten , a play on Mayakovsky Weltmeisterschaft im Klassenkampf and radio plays.
Csokor, Franz Theodor — Csokor is known primarily as an Austrian expressionist dramatist. He worked in theatres in St Petersburg before settling in his native Vienna: After the First World War Csokor turned to historical and social problems: After Csokor fled into eastern Europe; he was finally arrested in Yugoslavia, and interned. A selection of his works, Du bist gemeint, with a foreword by Erhard Buschbeck, appeared in The Zeuge einer Zeit. Ein paar Schaufeln Erde. Czechowski, Heinz — Czechowski witnessed the destruction of Dresden, which became the subject of several poems and autobiographical sketches.
His melancholy free verse belongs to a tradition of nature poetry which originates in the eighteenth century and is imbued with an awareness of how his predecessors have responded to the same mainly Saxon landscapes and the effects on them of industrial development. In all these one can detect a movement from a positive depiction of everyday life in the GDR and a straightforward autobiographical approach to the expression of a more complex subjectivity, sceptical of conventional views of progress.
Nachtspur consists of poems and prose from to His vast epic Das Nordlicht, which took him twelve years to write, was published in The works that follow Das Nordlicht, particularly the collection of sketches Mit silberner Sichel , contain much talented writing: Dichtungen und Schriften appeared in , and Gedichte in In the following year his best-known work appeared, Ultra Violett.
He travelled extensively; a collection of Novellen again, greatly influenced by Jugendstil topoi appeared in Die acht Gesichter am Biwasee. Japanische Liebesgeschichten it was reprinted in and was extremely popular. In the same year his second novel, Raubmenschen, was published: Dauthendey responded sensitively to the Orient and popularized the culture of the Far East: Erlebnisse aus Java and Letzte Reise appeared posthumously. His Gesammelte Werke six vols appeared in Degenhardt, Franz Josef — Degenhardt became known in the s as author, composer and performer to his own guitar accompaniment of protest songs, of which there have been numerous recordings and publications, incl.
As a novelist he is associated with the realists published by the Autoren-Edition incl. Fuchs, Timm , who aim to raise political consciousness in a wide readership by showing how political forces impinge on the lives of ordinary people. Dehmel, Richard — A student of the natural sciences, philosophy and economy, Dehmel took up writing in the Berlin of the s and reflected in his poetry the main preoccupations of the following two decades: Nietzscheanism, naturalism, impressionism, Jugendstil and a latent expressionism.
His poetry is marked by a powerful sensuality, compassion and a keen intellect. Dehmel stresses in many poems the joy to be found in sexual love, together with hope for true emancipation in the future. Dehmel also wrote plays: His work is at its best in the portrayal of sensuous love and in its sincere, humanitarian beliefs. Although exempt from enlistment due to injuries received at school after a fall from a horizontal bar , Dehmel joined the army in he was over 50 at the time: Dehmel was in close contact with the major writers of his day; he contributed to the leading literary journals.
Gesammelte Werke ten vols appeared from to a three-volume selection in A posthumous autobiography, Mein Leben, was published in In appeared Dichtungen, Briefe, Dokumente. His awareness of the forces at work in contemporary society and of how their interaction affects individual lives underlies all his novels. In Adenauerplatz a security guard employed to watch over a shopping and business complex in an anonymous German city is forced to confront the contradictions of his position as a refugee from Chile after the fall of Allende when he is drawn into collusion with a plot by friends to burgle an international wheeler-dealer with a stake in the political status quo in South America; having become aware of the ramifications of Third World exploitation he decides to abandon his job and return to Chile.
Mogadischu Fensterplatz is a fictional treatment from the perspective of an ordinary passenger of the hijack carried out by members of the Baader-Meinhof group in Somalia in and reflects a deepening concern with Third World topics evident also in the work of Born and Timm. Die Birnen von Ribbeck , a story consisting of a single sentence seventy pages long, describes the impact of the opening of the Wall on a farm in provincial GDR made famous by a ballad of Fontane.
This work, a collection of highly charged utterances, preaches an extreme form of militant Catholicism: The publication of Part One met with little interest, the exception being Karl Wolfskehl, who looked back on it with great pleasure during his New Zealand exile. Das Werk six volumes was published in Dinter, Artur — A student of the natural sciences, Dinter became a teacher, then turned to the theatre; he became increasingly anti-Semitic and reached notoriety with a trilogy of novels published between and The first of these was much acclaimed and widely read; in crudely sensational terms it describes the poisoning of the blood of a German woman, Johanna, through once having had intercourse with a Jew.
The child born to Johanna and her husband Hermann, both blond and Germanic, is dark and of Jewish appearance. Hermann kills the Jew and returns to find that his wife has killed the child and has committed suicide. A collection of Novellen appeared in , bearing the title of the first story, Die Ermordung einer Butterblume, an account of mental disturbance and, in fact, little more than a catalogue of neuroses. Wallenstein two vols , which appeared in , deals with the historical figures of the Thirty Years War but also hints at wider issues—the role of the individual during a time of massive upheaval.
Man and nature are locked in a gigantic struggle: Comparisons have been made with Manhattan Transfer and Ulysses Hans Henny Jahnn and others referred in their reviews to the Irish novelist: Biberkopf sinks from one stage of degradation to another: Babylonische Wandrung curses the sin of pride and portrays with grotesque humour the passage of the hero through the Babylon of Western civilization in a journey of selfexploration and expiation.
The work appears formless a fusion of mythology, history, modern events, statistical facts and popular songs , but an inexhaustible richness cannot be denied. In he became a convert to Roman Catholicism and after the war he returned to Paris, working in the cultural department of the French military government his son Wolfgang had been killed in the war, fighting as a French soldier. Questions are asked concerning the possibility of responsible action and the ultimate meaning of human existence. Doderer, Heimito von — Born near Vienna, Doderer enlisted in the Austrian army as a young man and became a Russian prisoner of war in Doderer studied history at Vienna University, received his doctorate in and dedicated himself to creating an epic description of the city he knew so well.
He had published a book of poems, Gassen und Landschaften, in , also a short novel, Die Bresche, in , but Doderer felt that he needed the breadth of the full-scale novel to do his subject Vienna justice. Other novels, Ein Mord, den jeder begeht , Der Umweg and Die erleuchteten Fenster , are best regarded as sophisticated detective stories and thrillers, meant for a wide readership.
The hero is one Melzer, former imperial officer, now senior official in the new republic. The years —11 and —5 are compared and contrasted. The book is felt to lack social awareness, despite the rich clutter A-Z 67 of its scenario. Doderer is concerned with a process which he calls Menschwerdung: A certain pretentiousness cannot be denied here, also much implausibility the worker Leonhard Kakabsa, for example, who experiences Latin as an almost mystical illumination. After this epic re-creation of Vienna Doderer turned to shorter narrative forms: This novel is meant to be part of a cycle bearing the title Roman Nr.
Der Grenzwald, a fragmentary part of this cycle, appeared posthumously in She made her final return to Germany in , since when she has lived in Heidelberg. She has also produced autobiographical writings, Von der Natur nicht vorgesehen , Aber die Hoffnung. Roman in Segmenten , revised version Her editorial work includes the anthology Nachkrieg und Unfrieden and Doppelinterpretationen , in which brief essays by readers and authors on poems by the latter are juxtaposed.
The A companion to twentieth-century german literature 68 poetological reflections present in the introductions and epilogues to these volumes are continued in the Frankfurt lectures Das Gedicht als Augenblick der Freiheit He also provided libretti for popular operettas: Dorst, Tankred — Dorst served in the army at the end of the Second World War, was a POW until , then studied German literature, art and drama in Munich, where he has continued to live. His plays since the early s are the result of a close working partnership with his wife Ursula Ehler.
He then collaborated with the director Peter Zadek on the television film Rotmord , based on this play, and on the revue Kleiner Mann— was nun? The film scenario Sand , radio play , which explores the motives for a political murder in , was followed by A-Z 69 Eiszeit , on an old man who can be identified as the unrepentant Nazi sympathizer Knut Hamsun; with his stubborn will to live he is contrasted with his would-be assassin who commits suicide.
The late s were occupied with the Merz cycle, an extensive chronicle in various media of a middle-class family between the late s and the present consisting of Auf dem Chimborazo , play, radio play and television film , Dorothea Merz , novel and television film , Klaras Mutter , story and television film , Die Villa , play , Mosch , film , Fragment einer Reise nach Stettin , radio play , Die Reise nach Stettin , scenario and Heinrich oder die Schmerzen der Phantasie , play and radio play , which together form a vivid panorama of German history.
Karlos first performed is a version of the material made famous by Schiller in Don Carlos. Fernando Krapp hat mir diesen Brief geschrieben presents a woman between two constrasting men, Herr Paul , first performed a conflict between progress and stasis with surreal effects, as a young entrepreneur attempts to dislodge an old couple Paul and his sister from his new business premises.
Wie Dilldapp nach dem Riesen ging is another play. A Werkausgabe has been in progress since He returned to Vienna in and again took up legal practice. His prose works include the autobiographical Z. Drach can thus be associated with Lind, Hilsenrath and Tabori as an advocate of black humour in order to expose persecution in general and that of the Jews in particular. Late works are Ja und Nein: Oktoberlicht portrays a day in the life of a middle-aged woman who visits her scattered family after a stay in hospital; in Wer verteidigt Katrin Lambert?
Eingeschlossen , in which Jesus and Prometheus confront one another as a social worker and an atomic physicist who have become the inmates of a mental hospital, represents a significant departure from the naturalism of her previous work. For A-Z 71 many years he, together with Frisch, represented contemporary drama in German to the rest of the world. Early influences consisted of the theology absorbed at home—he was, especially in his early years, exercised by theological problems in what he recognized as a post-religious age and therefore approaches existentialism—and the plays of Thornton Wilder and Brecht.
In the course of his career his work was marked by consistency of theme and a formal development towards ever greater emphasis on the grotesque, prompted by his early realization that the anonymity of the forces which control human fate nowadays cannot be reconciled with the traditional conception of tragedy: In the context of the breakdown of ideological confrontation in the late s, the play appears unwittingly prophetic. His other writings include two volumes of Theaterschriften und Reden , , Der Mitmacher. A Werkausgabe in thirty volumes appeared in , Gesammelte Werke eight volumes in and Das dramatische Werk seventeen volumes in A Werkausgabe in seven volumes appeared in E Edschmid, Kasimir pseudonym of Eduard Schmid, — Edschmid studied Romance languages in Munich, Geneva, Paris and Strasbourg; he rapidly associated himself with the young writers of expressionism and became a tireless propagator and theoretician of that movement.
In a famous lecture 13 December he described the expressionists thus: Er sieht nicht, er schaut. Er schildert nicht, er erlebt. Er gibt nicht wieder, er gestaltet. Er nimmt nicht, er sucht. Nun gibt es nicht mehr die Kette der Tatsachen: Nun gibt es die Vision davon. In later life he wrote on expressionism again Lebendiger Expressionismus ; his diary Tagebuch —60 also contains reminiscences.
Ehrenstein, Albert — Born in Vienna, son of Hungarian Jewish parents, Ehrenstein was discovered by Karl Kraus, who published his poems and grotesque prose sketches in Die kackel. Ehrenstein is known, however, primarily as a lyric poet; Der Mensch schreit is a collection of expressionist verse, pacifist, dynamic and urgent in tone: Ehrenstein went to Switzerland during the First World War; he led a restless life afterwards, travelling through Europe and Asia in an attempt to find and cherish the finest manifestations of human civilization.
In the s other collections of poetry appeared: Ehrenstein fled to New York, where he died in a hospital for the poor in Gedichte und Prosa ed. Eich also achieved prominence in the s as the principal contributor, along with Ilse Aichinger, whom he married in , Ingeborg Bachmann and Wolfgang Weyrauch, to the renaissance of radio drama, composing some fifteen plays within the decade. In his treatise Negerplastik appeared, containing illustrations of African masks and statues.
Einstein pleaded for a new three-dimensionality, finding in African carvings a sense of spatial structure similar to that created by cubism. Jahrhunderts sought to combine the assessment of primitivism with social awareness. Einstein identified with the anarchists in the Spanish Civil War and fought with them; he returned to France, but was interned when the German armies invaded.
Unable to return to Spain because of his previous involvement he committed suicide at Gave de Pau. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 76 Eisenreich, Herbert —86 Eisenreich lived in Vienna and Upper Austria, except for a period of war service, four years as a writer for the newspaper Die Zeit and the radio in the Federal Republic and a stay in France. These and his novels show him to have been the last representative of a tradition of Austrian social fiction which reached its zenith in the work of Joseph Roth and Heimito von Doderer.
Die abgelegte Zeit is the surviving fragment of a novel which originally had the title Sieger und Besiegte and presents from the standpoint of the efforts of a number of characters to adapt to the situation after the Second World War in the spirit advocated by a resigned and conciliatory Austrian general in the theory of retreat he devises in the last weeks of the war. Elsner, Gisela —92 Elsner achieved fame and notoriety at a stroke with the award of the Formentor Prize for her first novel Die Riesenzwerge The gruesome, grotesque effects conveyed here by mainly concentrating on the meal rituals of the petty bourgeois family can be related to the distanced distortions evident in the work of Grass, Jakov Lind and the early Peter Weiss rather than to the Cologne realists Wellershoff, Herburger, Born with whom she was initially associated.
They are less manifest in her later novels, but she remained primarily a satirist of contemporary social and domestic mores in the Federal Republic, viewed from the committed standpoint of a member of the West German Communist Party. In Der Nachwuchs the narrator is a repulsive child treated as a pet by its parents and forced to make a late discovery of the world beyond the confines of the stuffy family house; narrator, family and neighbours appear, as in Die Riesenzwerge, in the same jaundiced light.
In the following novels the satire becomes more psychologically penetrating and socially specific: Das Windei covers forty years in the lives of a couple determined to maintain an affluence they have been brought up to take for granted by means of a shady construction business which ends in bankruptcy.
Ende, Michael —95 Ende is the most prominent recent author of stories which aim to appeal to children and adults. His international success is based on Momo and Die unendliche Geschichte , both of which have been filmed. In the second the framework narrative set in the real world and the core narrative set in the realm of fantasy are indicated and separated by red and green scripts until after the passing of a critical point which reverses the debilitation of fantasy which had threatened the central child figure.
Engelke, Gerrit — From a working-class background, Engelke, apprenticed to a house-painter, turned early to poetry and in approached Dehmel for encouragement: With Kneip Engelke became quickly befriended; after enlistment in the outbreak of the war found him writing his novel Don Juan in Denmark Engelke grew closer to Lersch. An enthusiastic proclamation of a higher humanity pulsates throughout much of his work. A selection of his poems appeared in a volume entitled Schulter an Schulter Engelke was killed near Cambrai on 13 October ; he is buried close to the spot where Wilfrid Owen was to die two weeks later.
Rhythmus des neuen Europa appeared in reprinted Engelmann, Bernd — After service at the front Engelmann was confined to Dachau and other camps until He offered an alternative view of German history in the Deutsches Antigeschichtsbuch Wir Untertanen , covering the period from the Middle Ages to , Einig gegen Recht und Freiheit on the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich and Trotz alledem on German radicals during the last two hundred years.
He has lived as a free-lance writer or as a lecturer in Norway which inspired some bleak nature poems , Rome and the USA. Enzensberger is a polemicist schooled in the dialectic of Hegel, Marx and Adorno, to the last of whom he owes insights developed in the essays collected in Einzelheiten two volumes and , which rigorously analyse the West German media. His journalism has been collected in the volumes Politik und Verbrechen , Politische Kolportagen , Deutschland, Deutschland unter anderem , Palaver , Politische Brosamen , the seven travel reports Ach Europa!
The collections of poems Zukunftsmusik and Kiosk continue the process of growing scepticism and distance from earlier certainties, spiced with metaphysical wit. Diderots Schatten assembles all the writings on the French sage who has long been admired by Enzensberger.
Enzensberger has been a key figure in the intellectual life of the Federal Republic from its foundation and his influence far transcends the reputation he has gained from his contribution to any single genre, even poetry. Occasionally derided as a chameleon figure he has demonstrated by his polemical talent, his wit, his cosmopolitanism, his versatility in several media and his ability to take a broad view of social and political developments and to assess their implications in a pragmatic spirit unusual in the German left, that, as in the days of Heinrich Heine, there is a place for positive subversion.
A visit to Italy turned his attention to questions of artistry rather than politics: As Dramaturg in Weimar —14 Ernst wrote a series of historical plays including Demetrios , Canossa , Brunhild and Ninon de Lenclos After the patriotic tone in his writing became more pronounced, and his conservative stance more extreme; the basic human problems, Ernst believed, were revealed more clearly in rural, even feudal, society than amongst the urban proletariat. His literary reputation is founded on his prose rather than his dramas: The hero of the first, one Hans Werther, rejects social and political pre-occupations and finds fulfilment in marriage and agriculture.
Most well-known are the collections of Novellen: His essays including Der Weg zur Form advocate restraint and order in writing and a hierarchical ideal in society. The attempt to rescue the verse-epic Das Kaiserbuch —8 , and Der Heiland was largely unsuccessful. His Gesammelte Werke now largely unread appeared between and in twenty-one volumes. The second novel, Alraune. Die Geschichte eines lebenden Wesens , was immensely popular a girl is born from the seed of an ejaculating victim of the hangman implanted in a certain Alma Raune in a nearby hospital: Ewers considered himself the herald of a fantastic Satanist movement that looked back to Poe and de Sade: Der Fundvogel is a sensational account of an enforced sex change.
Ewers was appointed to the Dichter-Akademie, but the Nazis, finding his earlier writings incompatible with visions of Nordic health, prohibited further writing and pronounced Ewers degenerate. His work is primarily of interest in the link that it provides between decadence, Satanism and National Socialism. Gesammelte Werke eight vols appeared in Seltsame Geschichten were published in Fallada became instantly famous with Kleiner Mann, was nun?
The protagonist Pinneberg attempts to defend his private happiness between the middle classes on the one hand and the proletariat on the other, dreading redundancy and the threat of impoverishment: Fallada, an alcoholic, wrote at a frantic pace to provide himself with funds; during the Third Reich he turned to idyllic romances and folksy legends. Damals bei uns daheim and Heute bei uns zu Hause are little more than autobiographies. The Russians elected Fallada as mayor of Feldberg in Mecklenburg two years before his death. Fallada is a powerful story-teller who succeeds best when describing the narrow, sentimental world of the petite bourgeoisie: Fels, Ludwig — Of working-class origin, Fels has more successfully than any other contemporary social realist, with the possible exception of Kroetz, encapsulated in his poetry and prose the sadness, frustration, anger and disorientation of the under-class in the urban environment.
Fels relies on experience and an unidealistic identification with his characters.
Bleeding Heart is a novel on the ego-trip of a desperately jealous man set in Tangier. Sturmwanderung and Die Hochzeit von Sarajewo are plays, the latter set in the Bosnian civil war. Feuchtwanger, Lion — Dramatic critic, playwright and novelist, Feuchtwanger made his reputation in the s with a series of historical novels. He helped Bertolt Brecht with Trommeln in der Nacht originally called Spartakus and collaborated with him on Leben Eduards des Zweiten von England; Brecht in turn helped him to revise his Warren Hastings, Gouverneur von Indien written , published and, some twenty years later, wrote with him Die Gesichte der Simone Machard.
A Jew himself, Feuchtwanger described as early as in Die Geschwister Oppenheim the sufferings and tribulations of his fellow Jews in Germany. He fled to France and also visited the Soviet Union; he became co-editor with Brecht and Willi Bredel of the anti-fascist literary review Das Wort, published in Moscow. His plays, mostly Old Testament and historical dramas, have not proved successful, apart from those written in collaboration with Brecht.
Together with others, Feuchtwanger founded the Aurora publishing house in New York at the end of the war to bring out works in German for the reviving German market. In he was awarded the Nationalpreis der DDR. His Gesammelte Werke appeared from —48; the Gesammelte Werke twenty vols from on, with a sixteen-volume edition appearing in Fichte, Hubert —86 The illegitimate son of a Jewish father, Fichte spent part of his childhood in a Catholic orphanage, an experience which formed the basis of his first novel Das Waisenhaus He then trained as an actor, but also worked on the land in North Germany and Provence before becoming a professional writer in Hamburg.
Here he remained until his death, except for extensive journeys in South America and the Caribbean in connection A-Z 85 with his later anthropological works. Nossack, Der Untergang and references to the ritual practices of AfroAmerican religions. These form the subject of the following works: Xango accompanied by a photographic volume with the same title , dealing with Bahia, Haiti and Trinidad, and Petersilie , on Santo Domingo, Venezuela, Miami and Grenada, which develop the preoccupation with abnormal sexual practices and psychopathology reflected in his earlier work.
What was completed of the planned nineteen parts of the cycle of novels Geschichte der Empfindlichkeit appeared between and Der kleine Hauptbahnhof oder Lob des Strichs, 3. Glossen set in Berlin this volume is not to be published until , 4. Glossen set in Rome, Greece, Egypt, Morocco , 6. Der Platz der Gehenkten set in Morocco , 7.
Roman der Ethnologie set in Brazil , unnumbered volumes: Forschungsbericht set in Belize , Psyche. In addition there are volumes of Paralipomena: These are assembled in a sixteen-volume cassette. Flake turned to traditional writing after the war and sought to promote understanding between France and Germany: In the s Flake embarked upon a Badische Chronik; he also wrote essays on French literary figures, his best being on the Marquis de Sade , whose preface attempts to explain that it is necessary to describe the perverse in order fully to appreciate the norm.
An autobiography appeared in Es wird Abend. The Werke five vols appeared from to In she met Bertolt Brecht, who had the most far-reaching influence upon her work. More sober is Pioniere in Ingolstadt , a hard-boiled portrayal of the effect on the young girls of the town of the arrival of a troop of soldiers. Avantgarde is a thinly-veiled portrayal of Brecht. Her play on Charles I, Karl Stuart, was first published in The Gesammelte Werke three vols appeared in , a four-volume edition in Flex had also A-Z 87 published two volumes of poems before the war and a historical tragedy in verse, Klaus Bismarck , dealing with an ancestor of the Prussian statesman Flex had been a private tutor to the Bismarck family.
This was reprinted in Riga as late as May Gesammelte Werke two vols appeared in He was famous for short stories concerning the lives of North German fishermen his father having been one: Schullengrieper und Tungenknieper , Fahrersleute and Nordsee He reached a wide readership with his novel Seefahrt ist not! Much of his writing is in Plattdeutsch, particularly the Hamborger Janmooten His plays, Cilli Cohrs and Doggerbank posthumously, , are less successful.
Fock also published a collection of Plattdeutsche Kriegsgedichte —15 , many of them humorous: Das schnellste Schiff der Flotte. Die besten Geschichten Gorch Focks appeared in The West German training-ship for young cadets is named after him. Erinnerungen is an informative and sympathetic document. In Fontana contributed poems to a collection by A companion to twentieth-century german literature 88 E. Rheinhardt entitled Die Botschaft. Fontana turned increasingly to the novel: In appeared Der Weg durch den Berg, a novel dealing with the building of the St Gotthard pass; another novel dealing with the advantages and disadvantages of modern technology the use of gas is Der Atem des Feuers In his later years Fontana devoted himself to theatre criticism.
In he published Wiener Schauspieler, a portrayal of famous actors and actresses from Mitterwurzer to Maria Eis. A selection of his writings, Mond im Abendrot, was published in In Kaspar Hausers Tod analogies to the situation in Germany in anti-terrorist campaign are indicated in the funeral of the famous foundling murdered in Forte is also the author of numerous plays for radio and television in which everyday subjects are treated with original use of these media.
In Der Artist im Moment seines Absturzes a play within a play shows actors coming to terms with their roles as a German writer and his wife in exile in Paris in Hist, and Biography," vol. It should be Tob. Do that which is good, and no evil shall touch you. D n their ship. This vessel, com- manded by Captain Tanner, was armed and carried fourteen large cannon. According to their mystical interpretation they argued, — 1.
By Faith Sarah we got for our journey the means that were not in sight. By Smyrnean L,ove 13 Maria — in Hebrew Mar, bitter, whence Maria which is not obtained without toil and trou- ble, but remains faithful unto death. And at last, through "Hope" we will be "Well" safely landed. The Perils of the Journey. The first mishap came at the very outset when they ran into a furious gale in the channel. The pilot, taking his course close to the English coast for fear of French privateers, was forced to steer between cliffs and sand-banks.
As the storm increased in fury, fearing for the safety of the vessel, they cast their largest anchor. When the gale was abating, the ship drifted against the anchor ; it broke, knocking a hole in the ship, which, however, caused no leak. Towards night another storm arose, and the vessel was driven by wind and waves against a hard sand-bank. This proved to be true, for when the prayers strove most earn- estly against the wind and waves, the most powerful waves came, as it were, to the support of the prayers, and at the behest of the Creator, whom they obeyed, lifted the ship 15 Probably one of the shoals known as the Goodwin Sands.
Eventually the Downs 17 were reached February 21st without further mis- hap ; here a stop was made for over two weeks ; a new anchor was obtained in place of the one lost, and the ship thoroughly overhauled, while waiting for the arrival of a good convoy, which was to have been sent from London.
Dauterbach and others in Ger- many, from whom we had received most cheering answers. He listened with the greatest pleasure to our account of the Pietists in Germany, and invited us to repeat our visit ; we were prevented from doing so by our sailing. The expected convoy not arriving, sail was set on the eighth day of March, 17 ' ' The Downs, ' ' a spacious roadstead in the English Channel, affording an excellent anchorage. It is between the shore and the Goodwin Sands and is much used by the British navy. In American history it is known as " King William's War.
It has no harbor. Under date of the next day March 9th the following memorandum in English is inserted in Kelpius' L,atin diary in a different handwriting: If in the night, I will putt a light in the main top mast shrouds and fire a gun, which light you are to answer. If I weigh in a fog I will fire 3 gunns distantly one after another.
If I anchor in the night or in a fogg, I will fire 2 guns a small distance of time one from the other and putt abroad a light more than my constant lights, which light you are to answer. From an old Dutch print. In this harbor the vessel remained for five weeks waiting for the convoy from London. It was while here in port that letters were received from Laeut. Schmaltz 22 and others in Erfurth, and friends in Cleves, Konberg 23 and elsewhere in Germany, questioning 22 Ivieut. Schmaltz was a leading spirit of the Collegia Pietatis in Erfurth. He died in An entry in the town chronicle states " Iyieut.
Schmaltz could not be induced during his last illness to make any confession as to the person of Christ or the justification of a sinner before God ; he also refused to receive the sacrament. Konigsberg is no doubt intended, the seat of the celebrated Albertine University Collegium Albertinum founded in In later years it became celebrated as the place where the philosophy of Kant was first propounded.
Kelpius in reply addressed commu- nications to Lauterbach, De Watteville, Meerkamp and others, declining their advice, and adhering to his determi- nation of going to Pennsylvania. The expected convoy not arriving, a final start was made on the 1 8th of April under the protection of several foreign men-of-war, Danish, Spanish and Swedish 24 then in the harbor, and which were to sail from Plymouth to Cadiz. For this purpose an agreement was entered into with the Spanish Admiral, Nicholas De Rudder, for a certain sum of money to convoy the vessel two hundred Dutch miles into the ocean ; and on the 25th of April the actual voyage to the new world commenced, in company with another English vessel, the " Providence," carrying 18 guns.
After parting with the armed escort the two vessels fol- lowed a southwestern course, and for the rest of the month were favored with good weather and favorable breezes. Magister Kelpius, in writing about their life on shipboard, states: We had also prayer meetings and sang hymns of praise and joy, several of us accompanying on instruments that we had brought from London. We were only two ships and saw in the morning, when the weather was fair and quiet, three vessels in the distance. Mark, when at sea a foreign ship comes in sight, immedi- ately alarm is given and everything put in readiness for an encounter.
Many of us became depressed in mind from a presentiment that they were hostile French ships. They steered directly towards us, but on account of the calm could make no headway for 5 or 6 hours. About noon we could see by the telescope that they carried white flags with lilies, enough to show, that this day things would take a French, not a Christian turn. As soon as this was ascer- tained, every thing was made ready for battle. The pas- sengers were given the choice to fight or not. We had hardly got down, when a French frigate with 24 cannon and a merchant ship with 6 cannon made straight for our ship and opened fire so vigor- ously, that it was really time to pray for averting great calamity.
The merciful Father made the enemies' balls drop into the water before our ship, only one cannon ball struck the ship over our heads without doing harm to anybody, though the ship got a hole two ells above the water line. In the mean time our cannon and ball were not idle, but did great damage to the enemies' ships, which we inferred from their retreat. But half an hour afterwards they re- sumed the attack. Then a 12 pound ball was sent right 24 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. An hour later the frigate fell back a little and with the third vessel, which carried 12 guns attacked our fellow ship, which, however, made a good defense.
Here it happened that a Frenchman on the merchant vessel while aiming with his rifle at our captain, while on the point of shooting, was rent to pieces by a cannon ball, before he could pull the trigger. Whether the shot came from our companion ship or ours nobody knows. The enemy stopped firing, expecting us to capitulate or else, designing to turn to our port, but it pleased the Lord to make an end of the racket that day and to drive the enemy to flight by means no one would have thought of. For the Lord put it into the heart of our captain to call all males on deck, and to make them join his crew in raising a pretended shout of joy.
When this was done, and the enemy observed on our ship, contrary to ex- pectation, so many heads, whom, they thought, had been fighting and would continue to fight, it was as if their can- nons had at once become dumb and their courage sunk into the sea like a millstone. The I,ord struck them with fear, so they suddenly turned their ships about and fled away from us. Our captain, however, was satisfied when the merchant ships hoisting a white flag sur- rendered.
Then we also stopped firing. The two other 25 It was at this point that the "Providence," the companion of the " Sarah Maria," came up and joined in the pursuit. Being the faster of the two, she chased and engaged the hostile frigate. The battle lasted four hours, but only three balls of the enemy struck, doing little damage to the ship and none to the men. The Capes of Virginia. There were on board twenty four Frenchmen, among them one of the re- formed faith, who had been attending mass under compul- sion.
Seven were taken aboard our ship, including this Huguenot, who liked our company and was pleased that we could speak his language and assuage in some measure his bruised conscience. The ship had a cargo of sugar and came from Martinique under the 17th degree of Latitude. At first the prisoners raised a great wail and lamentation ; they had expected to land in France as freemen and had now to return to America in captiv- ity. But thus they Naval Trophies. The Lord fulfilled on them what is written Revel, ch.
On the evening of the same day June 12th the party had their first glimpse of the western world, the capes of Virginia were sighted, and two days later June 14th the " Sarah Maria" entered Chesapeake Bay. It took the travelers five days to sail 26 Kelpius makes no mention of this incident. The End of the Voyage. This was a disagreement between some of the party, in which a woman, who was one of the ship's com- pany, was evidently the leading cause, or at least a promi- nent character.
All that is definitely known about the affair is the entry in the Kelpius diary 28 — June 17th, under the sign of the sun — " that Falkner was excommunicated by Koster, as was also Anna Maria Schuchart. Five days after the vessel had entered the capes of Virginia the anchor was dropped, and the landing made at the Bohe- mia Landing, as before stated. Daniel Falkner, in his account, at this point notes: This landing was built out from the sandy beach at the northwestern shore of the point where Dock Creek emptied its waters into the Delaware ; this beach was almost immediately in front of the Blue Anchor Tavern, 30 and was the same point where the Proprietor Wil- liam Pennhad landed just twelve years be- fore.
The passengers, as they left the vessel and gathered upon the sloping beach, at first sight looked like a motley crowd ; they numbered forty 30 The Blue Anchor. This ancient hostelrie stood at what is now the northwest corner of Front and Dock Streets ; it was taken down in 18 For an extended notice of this landing place see " Penna.
Some were in a coarse Pilgrim garb, others in the peculiar dress of the Teutonic university student, while others again wore the distinctive costume of the German interior provinces. It was the same party of religious enthusiasts who had crossed the ocean in the good ship a Sarah Maria.
The first Baptist congrega- tion on the Pennepack had no house of worship until the year His- torical sketch by H. The Presbyterians erected their first church in The Swedish Blockhouse at Wicacoa, although still standing, was then in a very ruinous condition, so much so that no services could be held in the building.
The old Dutch pastor, Jacobus Fabricius, so far back as petitioned the Provincial Council for per- mission to keep an ordinary or tavern [for the support of himself and family]. This was refused by Council in the curt sentence that "they don't think fitt to grant ye Petitioners request. Fletcher, and the Provincial Council. This time the petition was one for relief, and set forth that he had now became totally blind, and was reduced to the direst poverty, and that he had not whereupon to live.
Council " Ordered that the church wardens of their church have notice to appear att Council the fifteenth instant, to make ansr to the said Com- plaint. Naturally the question was asked, " Who were these peculiar people in outlandish attire and of foreign tongue? No notice whatever seems to have been taken of this action of Council.
The death of the old clergyman is recorded in the same year. The country members took lodgings out of the city and walked in to 32 The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. Unfortunately, we have no positive record where this unique cere- mony took place. It was in the latter house, 36 then sur- rounded by ample grounds, that the Provincial Council attend the meetings, frequently bringing their dinners with them. See " Record of Rev.
Thus Penn lost the government and jurisdiction over these provinces, without, how- ever, being deprived of his right as proprietary. In making this appoint- ment he was as little thought of as the charter that had been granted to him ; in order, however, to strengthen the royal authority, the new gov- ernor was invested with the power of negativing all laws, and none was to be in force, unless approved by the King. In April, , Fletcher made his solemn entry into Philadelphia, where Governor Lloyd and his Council gave up the government to him without being thereunto author- ized either by the crown or the proprietary.
The government of Pennsylvania remained under the Crown of Eng- land from April 26, , to March, The bricks and finer parts of the frame- work were brought from England, together with Penn's workmen " ser- vants" to set them up. A few years ago this old landmark was taken down and re-erected in Fairmount Park. The illustration here given represents it as it appeared about thirty years prior to its removal.
- Full text of "The German Pietists of provincial Pennsylvania : ".
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The Sojourn in Philadelphia. In former years there was a curious tradition current among the older German residents in connection with the short sojourn of this party within the city. After the formality of reporting to the representative of the Crown had been complied with, arrangements were made for shelter and sustenance as best they could be for so large a party, and it was well after nightfall before this was completed.
After the leaves and fagots were ignited, pine boughs were broken off and heaped upon the fire until a bright flame extended skyward. Then the mystic rites incident to St. John's eve were performed, after which the burning brands were scattered down the sloping hillsides with considerable ceremony. The party then returned to the sleeping city, after having lit for the first time in America, so far as is known, the " Sanct Johannis" or " Sonnenwend-feuer," a mystic cere- monial and religious rite which dates far back into the most remote period of time when the early Aryans were yet a small colony in northern Europe.
The rite on the eve of the summer solstice consisted in building a fire on an eminence ; The Arrival at Germantown. Their path led up Second Street, then a mere country lane, due north to Fairhill ; thence northwest to the German settlement under Pastorius, where the " town" consisted of a few houses on a single street. It took the party almost four hours to reach their goal, and the sun was well up on the horizon on that double holiday — "St.
Johannis Tag," June 24th, St. John the Baptist's Day and Sunday — when the company filed into the village of their countrymen and inquired for the house of one Jacob Isaac Van Bebber, 38 a native of Crefeld on the Rhine, near the borders of Holland. Here the weary travelers found a haven of rest. Their arrival had been long looked for by their host, and he forthwith secured for them shelter and sustenance.
Much anxiety had been felt by Van Bebber and his friends in Germantown on account of the non-arrival of when brightly blazing, flowers, pine boughs and bones were thrown into the fire, and the esoteric rites and incantations were performed: The embers were then rolled down the hillside, indicative of the waning of the sun's power. The rites on the eve of the winter solstice consisted mainly in lighting resinous pine boughs giving an upward flame, denoting the grow- ing power of the sun. The custom of the present day of lighted tapers on the Christmas tree is a relic of this ancient rite.
The object of this ceremonial was believed to be a sure safeguard against many evils. The practice still survives in some parts of Germany and may occasionally be witnessed in Pennsylvania. He was formerly a Mennonite, but he desires to depart with his whole house to acknowledge and abandon the follies, scandals, shortcomings and stains of his former religion. The long and uncertain ways of communica- tion at that early day precluded any news reaching them as to the causes of the delay before or after their embarka- tion.
On account of the prevailing war with France, great fears were entertained that the party might have been captured and fallen into the hands of the enemy, or succumbed to the elements. But now all uncertainty was removed. The joyful feeling, however, was not confined to the residents of Germantown. Doubly thankful were these weary pilgrims that they had arrived safely at the end of their long and eventful journey on the natal day 39 of the Saint whose example they strove to follow by words and action.
All other saints' days are memorial days, which mark the day of their supposed martyrdom or death. Symbol from Theosophical MS. A Theosophical authority defines Materia Prima primordial matter A' Wasa, as a universal and invisible principle, the basic substance of which all things are formed. By reducing a thing into its prima materia and clothing it with new attributes, it may be transformed into another thing by him who possesses spiritual power and knowledge.
There are several states of matter, from primordial down to gross visible matter ; some of the early philosophers therefore distinguished between materia proxima, materia remota and materia ultima. Franz Hartmann in "Cosmology," Boston, The symbol here reproduced is frequently met with in ancient sculptures, and sym- bolizes eternity, or a world without end. The Cathari regarded the exaltation of the soul over the moral nature, so as to become wholly absorbed in mystical contemplation, as the highest stage in the religious life of man.
Deep devotion of the heart in prayer and a life of purity connected with abstinence from carnal pleasure and from the use of stimulating food, were their exercises of piety. It is claimed by some writers that the Waldenses were an outcome of the original Cathari. The notices of them ascribed to Philo are of doubtful authenticity.
Even Hippolytus appears to have drawn his account of them from Josephus. They lived an austere life in the solitudes on the western side of the Dead Sea, where they held their property in common, wore a white robe, prayed and meditated continually, made frequent ablutions, for the most part renounced marriage, and often practised medicine. According to Beller- mann Berlin, the creed or chief doctrine of the Essenes was con- tained in the word " Love" charity. Prayer, abstinence and labor were the chief features of their life.
John the Baptist is said to have been an active member of this Jewish sect of Mystical Theosophists. The Theory of Mystic Numbers. This party of religious enthusiasts, who were led by the noblest impulses, and whose hearts were filled with the sole desire to live a godly life and serve their fellow countrymen, as well as the aborigines, was under the leadership of Mag- ister Johannes Kelpius, with Heinrich Bernhard Koster as deputy magister, and Johann Seelig, Daniel Falkner, Daniel Liitke and Ludwig Biedermann as wardens or assistants, together with thirty-four brethren, all men of learning, making a total of forty, the symbolic number of " Per- fection.
It is the first ring in the chain of existence, and one of the qualifications which the ancient philosophers have given the Deity. Its symbol is the mathematical point. The figure 2 consists of repeated unity, which is no number, and is represented by the mathematically straight line, consequently is not perfect.
The figure 4, however, is known as the equal perfect num- ber, 45 and has been held in high esteem by all schools of mystic philosophers. It is from these facts — properties which are not found in any other number — that the numeral has for ages past been held in reverence, 46 and been the visible symbol of the Deity, and is constantly recurring in the symbolism of every religious cult.
It is also identified with justice, because it is the first square number the product of equals. Thus the name of the Deity is represented by four letters in all languages, the English language being the exception. Whereas 4 represents the perfect Deity, 47 the mysterious numeral 3, figured as the Triad by the equilateral triangle, is the emblem of the attributes of God only, as it reunites the properties of the first two numbers. This is partly explained in the symbolical chart here re- produced. It forms the seventh folio of the Theosophical MS.
Qcilt miiat- c 4-O. Woe unto me, I perish, for I am of too unclean tongue to proclaim the mystery. A contemporary account in Latin, published at Am- sterdam in the year , 60 or two years after their de- parture, gives us a little in- arms of Holland, Phisica, Metaphisica et Hyperphisica, from title page of Theosophical Manuscript. This edition is exceedingly rare: He wrote the " History of the Quakers," printed in Dutch, , and translated into English in Croese wrote also a singular book, with the title of " Homerus Hebrasus, sive Historia Hebrseorum ab Homero," , 4to.
The intent of this work is to prove that the Odyssey contains the history of the Jews in the patriarchial ages, and that the Iliad is an account of the siege and capture of Jericho. He is chiefly known by his history of the Quakers, which went through several editions in Latin, English and German. To depart from these Babilonish Coasts, to those American Plantations, being led thereunto by the guidance of the Divine Spirit, and that seeing that all of them wanted worldly substance, that they would not let them want Friends, but assist them herein, that they might have a good Ship well provided for them to carry them into those places, wherein they might mind this one thing, to wit to shew with unanimous consent, their Faith and Love in the Spirit in converting of People, but at the same time to sustain their bodies by their daily Labour.
One, which I have described, consists of those who sought, and pressed nothing else, but sincere Religion and true Piety; and the greatest part of those are among the Learned and better sort of men, through Saxony and all Germany. Born in at Altseidenberg, a village near Gorlitz, of poor parents, lie remained to his tenth year without instruction and em- ployed in tending cattle. He was then apprenticed to a shoemaker, and in he became a master shoemaker in Gorlitz, married and continued a shoemaker all his days. Several visions and raptures led him to take up the pen. His first work appeared in , and was called " Aurora.
He died, after several prosecutions and acquittals, in Several complete sets of Boehme's works Amsterdam edition, Gichtel, , 10 vols. Arms of the United Netherlands, from an old Copperplate. Effigv of Johannes Tauler in the former Church of the Dominicans at strasburg, from a sketch made in o.
SOnal and practical piety, having for its central principle "That Christianity was first of all life, and that the strongest proof of the truth of its doctrine was to be found in the religious experience of the believing. As early as he formulated the dogma that only persons inspired by the Holy Ghost could understand the Scriptures, which produced many enthusiasts. For a time he lived in Dresden, afterwards in Berlin, where he held some ecclesiastical dignities. Petersen, Johanna von Merlau and many others of equal prominence. One of the most important centers of this movement was the ancient city of gia.
Erfurth, in Thurin- period of this agita- lying-point for stu- Pietists, from all Here also was fonn- a part of which America in a body, organization of this in Erfurth was in or 1 69 1, when Arms of erfurth, Under date of January 27, , a commis- sion was appointed by the reigning authority to inquire about the Pietists who held secret meetings by day and 61 A somewhat similar movement in the Roman Church at the same period was started by one Miguel de Molinos.
The members of this sect were known as Quietists. A more extended notice of this order is given in a subsequent chapter. This celebrated leader among mystic theo- sophists was born in at Strasburg. About the year he entered the convent of the Dominicans, and became a monk of that order. He acquired great skill in philosophy and scholastic divinity, but applied himself principally to mystical theology, and as it was believed that he was favored with revelations from heaven, he was styled the Illuminated Divine.
His great talents for preaching soon made him the most popular preacher of his age. In his great love of truth and the earnestness with which he devoted himself to the instruction of the people, and in his opposition to the abuses of the Roman Church, Tauler was a worthy predecessor of Luther.
His followers were known as Gottesfreunde, or the Friends of God, a designation derived directly from the words of Christ as recorded in the Gospel of St. Tauler's followers formed themselves into Chapters and Societies, and after the publication of the ban of the Church continued to meet in secret. From an old German engraving. Whereupon Francke, as well as his Senior, Dr. Breitenhaupt, 69 preached several sermons against the action of the authorities.
This 6S Ernst Christoph Hochmann von Hochenau, a leading mystic, who while imprisoned in the Castle Detmold, in November, , formulated a Pietistical creed or profession of faith Glaubensbekentniss. This was republished by Christopher Saur in Germantown, A fragment of an Ephrata reprint has also been found. He is chiefly known for the charitable institution which he founded at Halle for the education of poor children and orphans, and which soon became one of the most celebrated charitable institutions of Germany.
It is usually known as " das Hallische Waisenhaus. He is chiefly known by his "Thesis credendarum et agendorum fundementalis, " , and " De perfectione partium," Francke," Halle, , p. Portrait and Autograph from Collection of Ferd. It was at the instance of this clergyman and under the auspices of the Halle Orphanage that the Rev. Henry Melchior Muhlen- berg was sent to America, where he became the patriarch of the Lutheran Church. It is further an interesting fact that the first church built in America by Pastor Miihlen- burg, at the "Trappe," in Montgomery County, Penna.
Another interesting item in connection with the institu- tion presided over by Dr. Francke is the manner in which he obtained the sustenance for its support. One of the members of the Collegium Pietatis in Brfurth, Burgstaller by name, who was an alchemist and chemist, on his death- bed bequeathed to Francke the receipt for compounding cer- tain medicines, 73 which were sold by the different clergymen in sympathy with the institution.
It was also known as the Essentia dulcis. In Philadelphia the main supply was stored in one of the side porches of St. Michael's Church, corner Fifth and Appletree Alley. By many persons these remedies were supposed to have magical or super- natural properties, against which neither Satan nor disease could prevail. It combined an orphan asylum, a psedagogium, a Latin school, a German school and a printing press for issuing cheap copies of the Bible.
As the Pietistical movement spread and gained foothold in the various governments in Germany, and extended into the neighboring kingdoms, special edicts were issued against it, in which not only public and private 76 assemblages of the Pietists were forbidden, but also their literature. After his expulsion from Erfurth, Francke went to Gotha where his mother then lived.
Shortly afterwards he received a call as pastor at Glaucha, 79 a suburb of Halle. In the year he was offered and accepted the professor- ship of oriental languages 80 in the new University at Halle, 81 and four years later founded the celebrated orphanage in the suburbs of Halle, which exists to the present day. Notwithstanding the expulsion of Francke from Erfurth, the meetings were continued without intermission, but less openly. Consequently, on July 20, , the authorities issued another edict or " Decretum Senatus," which was pub- licly read from every pulpit, forbidding under penalty the as- semblage of any " Collegia Pietatis" within the jurisdiction.
Manifesto, February 4, Edict, January 7, Edict, Halle, January 25, A copy of all the edicts above quoted are in possession of the writer. At that early period Glaucha and Halle were virtually two distinct towns. There was no communication between the two places after sundown, at which time the portals of Halle were closed. The Great Elector of Brandenburg had founded an academy at Halle in , this was known as the " Ritterakademie," and in was changed into a university, when the celebrated Thomasius came hither from Leipsic, followed by a number of students.
A series of distinguished professors and the liberal provisions of government soon raised this university to the rank of one of the first in Europe. The university was twice suppressed by Napoleon In , by a Prussian Edict, the university was united with that of Wittenberg, since which time it bears the official title of the United Frederick University of Halle- Wittenberg, 6o The Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania.
Among the minor clergymen of note who were attracted to the Pietistical movement was the before-mentioned John Jacob Zimmermann, of Bietigheim, in Wurtemberg, a man well versed in geometry, geomancy and astrology, as well as theology. He was also a promi- nent character in the various philosophical and theosophical fraternities in his native coun- try.
Upon being deprived of his charge by the church authori- ties on account of his connection with the Mystics, it appears that he drifted to various places, and while in Hamburgh he became acquainted with Horbius, the brother-in-law of Spener. He finally went to Erfurth, and there perfected the plan of organizing a " Chapter of Perfection," and going in a body to the western world.
Another of the chief pro- moters of this scheme of emi- gration, who never reached these shores, was the cele- brated Dr. Johann Wilhelm Petersen, who, together with his wife, Eleonore von Mer- lau, was a member of the Frankfort Land Company, under whose auspices Pas- torius had come to Pennsyl- vania in The inter- course between Dr. The former, although a leading figure in the extreme mystical movements of the day, was no mere adventurer. He was married to the celebrated Eleonore von Merlau, who was subject to ecstatic visions. The couple conscientiously studied the Apocalypse to ascertain when the millennium of Christ would take place.
They were aided in this research by the beautiful Rosa- munda von Asseburg, an ecsta- tical phenomenon of the time, whose piety even L,eibnitz and Spener never questioned for a moment. The result of these speculations were published in 1 69 1 simultaneously at Frank- fort and L,eipsic, under the title of "Glaubens Gesprache mit Gott.
Zimmermann, how- ever, did not live to witness the successful culmination of his hopes, as he died on the eve of the embarkation at Rotterdam, in His widow with her four children, however, continued on the journey, and came to Pennsylvania with the party that her husband had been instrumental in organizing. The men who composed this Chapter of Mystics were not only Pietists in the accepted sense of the word, but they were also a true Theosophical Rosicrucian Commu- nity, a branch of that ancient mystical brotherhood who studied and practised the Kabbala, 83 which, when truly searched for, contemplated and understood, it is believed, " Opens her arms, and from its great height in the unknown essence of the Supreme Deity, the Endless, Boundless One, to its depth in the lowest materialism of evil, gives an opportunity for the reception and acquisition of the grandest and noblest ideas, to the highest and most subtle order of religious spiritual thought.
The Rabbis derive the kabbalistic mysteries from the most ancient times of their nation, nay even from Adam himself. But although a secret doctrine existed among the Hebrews in the earliest ages, this had reference merely to religious worship. The origin of the Philosophical Kabbala is to be sought for in Egypt, and dates from the time of Simeon Schetachides, who conveyed it from Egypt to Palestine. Persian influence at the captivity, a much likelier source.
The dualism and angelology of Mazdeism sud- denly appear in the Old Testament after the captivity. This is the pre-exilian account. This is the post-exilian account, after contact with the Zoroastrian doctrine of Ahriman. It is well known that the Asmodeus in the Book of Tobit is a Persian name for a demon.
Even such a sober scholar as Bishop Lightfoot admits a con- nection between Mazdeism and Essenism ; while L. Mills, one of the translators of the sacred books of the East, is still more pronounced in maintaining a direct historical connection between the late books of the Old Testament and the Zoroastrian cult. While the Kabbala probably arose from the same wave of post-exilian thought as generated Essenism it is extremely difficult to trace it back as a system beyond the Middle Ages, when its principal writings were composed.
The great object of these speculations was to reach the nearest approach that man can make to the unseen, that inner communion which works silently in the soul, but which cannot be expressed in absolute language nor by any words, which is beyond all formulations into word- symbolism, yet is on the confines of the unknown spiritual world.
This state, it was held, could only be obtained away from the allurements of the world by entering into silence, meditation and inter-communion with one's self. In occult literature the term nothing is sometimes applied to signify something which is inconceivable, and there- fore no thing to us.
In the German, the word is used to denote the Non Ego, or the absolute insignificance of the human being in comparison with the Deity. At present it is known as No. Shoemaker in- forms me of a singular fact regarding the old wall used by Lesher in rebuilding, that it would not retain a coat of "dash" or "roughcast," which fell off whenever put on, thus exposing the original stones and pointing. St The early settlers of the German Township, although all were consistent Protestants and persons of exemplary piety, made no attempt whatever after their arrival in America to establish regular orthodox services according to either the Lutheran ritual or the Reformed, — the faiths in which they were all brought up in the Fatherland.
Oswald Seidensticker, in Cincinnati Pioneer, vol. Jacob Isaacs Van Bebber came to America as a Mennonite in , and became one of the most influential persons in the community. He was a man of standing, ability, enterprise, and means. A few years after the arrival of Kelpius in America, Van Bebber moved to Philadelphia, where he is described, in , as " a merchant in High Street.
For additional facts concerning the Van Bebber family, see Hon. Pennypacker, in Pennsylvania Magazine, vol. As they became known throughout the vicinity a number of English hearers pre- sented themselves. On account of their numbers it was at first thought that they were Quakers, who strove to fill the house so as to exclude the regular German worshippers. Such, however, proved not to be the case: Thus it frequently hap- pened that the English outnumbered the Germans. Impressed with the importance of the situation, Koster informed his German hearers that, as so many of the at- tendants at the services could not understand German, while nearly all knew English, he would thereafter conduct services in both languages.
Luther made the original draught, at the command of John, Elector of' Saxony, at Torgau, in seventeen articles ; but, as its style appeared to be too violent, it was altered by Melanchthon, at the command of the Elector, and in compliance with the wishes of the body of Protestant princes and theologians. Thus changed, it was presented and read in the Diet, June 25, , and hence- forth became the creed of the Orthodox Lutheran Church.
Afterwards Melanchthon arbitrarily altered some of the articles, and a new edition with his changes appeared in The latter gave rise to the denomination known as " German Reformed. This book is now in possession of the writer. In a letter written to Rev. Gerard Croese, he states: For if the name of Calvinist be odious to him, why should not the name of Keithian he equally odious to me and to my brethren professing the same faith of Christ with me, which name this author useth in divers places of his history? The English services were, however, soon transferred to Philadelphia, where Koster used all his eloquence and learning to lead such of the Quakers as were discontented back to the Church.
The Keithians flocked around his standard, and in the fall of , for the first time since the establishment of the Province under Penn, church services, that approxi- mated orthodoxy, were held at regular intervals in Phila- delphia. As a matter of fact there were few or no English Bibles to be had. As soon as this became known to Koster he wrote to London, and at his own expense had a large number sent over from England 97 to Philadelphia for distribution among his hearers.
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It is a fact worthy of record that, notwith- standing the theosophical and mystical tendencies of Hein- rich Bernhard Koster, the pious and erratic enthusiast, the religious services instituted by him at Germantown and Philadelphia in were undoubtedly strictly according to the Lutheran ritual, and were also the first of the kind to be held in America in the German and English languages.
Furthermore, it was the influence engendered by these religious meetings, led by the bold and aggressive German, that paved the way for the establishment of the Episcopal Church services as by law ordained in the Province. It is also his custom to hold a meeting once a week in Philadelphia in which he speaks English. Jacob Fabritius," the last Swedish or Dutch clergyman who served the congregations on the Delaware prior to the arrival of Kelpius and his party, was a German by birth, and had been regularly ordained as a Lutheran pastor at Grosglogau, in Silesia, before coming to America ; but there are no records or traditions whatever to show that Fabritius ever held a single service in the German language while in Pennsylvania, or even that he opened communications with the German immigrants who arrived with Pastorius, or subsequently came to the Ger- manopolis in Penn's Province.
While Koster was looking after the religious needs of the Germans and their English neighbors, Kelpius con- summated arrangements looking toward the permanent 98 Acrelius, New Sweden translation , p. Jacob Fabritius, before mentioned, see note page 30, was origi- nally sent to America New Amsterdam by the Consistory of Amsterdam to serve the Dutch Lutheran churches along the Hudson River. He arrived in New York in , but his conduct there, as is shown by the public documents of the day, was far from bringing honor upon himself or his church.
After many quarrels with his congregations and the local magistrates, he finally drifted to the Delaware in , and in the year following he and one Lock divided the Swedish congregations into two parishes. In we find Fabritius holding services in the old block- house at Wicacoa. It also appears that Fabritius lived up the Delaware, somewhere on the river bank near Shackamaxon.
He died some time in , about a year before the arrival of the theosophical fraternity. An attempt has been made by a late writer to show that the blind pastor of Wicacoa was the son of the celebrated court preacher of the same name as Gustavus Adolphus.
Evidently this parcel of land had no connection with, nor was it any part of, the acres given to them previous to their departure from Holland. This tract was on what is now, after the lapse of two centuries, still known as the "Ridge. Here the necessary ground was cleared and a log house built upon the highest point of the tract. This structure Ephrata MSS. It was for the use of the forty brethern whose number, as before stated, was arrived at according to the esoteric symbolism of the Rosicrucian fraternity. The writer has heard it stated upon good authority that Lippard's informant had in his youth frequently seen and been about the ruins of the old structure.
It may be well to state here that this building is not to be confounded with the massive stone one farther up the stream, which was built in , and is still known as "the monastery on the Wissahickon. This crude observatory, having for its object matters both mystical and astronomical, was without doubt the first astro- nomical observatory set up within the Province.
Surmounting this structure was raised a peculiar cross or emblem, in such a position that the first rays of the sun as it rose in the east would flood the mystic symbol with a roseate hue. Wild, weird, and rugged as it was, shaded by the ghostly hemlock and stately pine, it afforded cool retreats for repose, contem- plation, and study during the long summer days. Crystal springs trickled from the rocks ; the healing aroma of the balsam-pine and sweet scents from the flowers were wafted in the air, while strains from the throats of scores of feathered songsters added an almost celestial charm to the scene.
The roof, in , was crushed in, as though stricken by a hurricane, many of the tim- bers lying in a shapeless mass. The walls, however, were still intact. Towards the west there were four large square spaces, framed in heavy pieces of timber, while the other sides of the structure were almost blank. In the large lower room, which was circular in form, there were the remnants of an altar and a large iron cross fixed against the wall. Its antiquity reaches far behind the Christian era.
The symbol, however, is a mere variation of the " Sonnen rad," or solar wheel. The circle denotes the solar year or eternity, while the four arms of the cross typify the four seasons. There are other esoteric meanings connected with this symbol, which are only explained to the initiates. This cave was claimed by Magister Kel- pius as his own, and to it, after it was enlarged and made habitable, he was wont to retire for contemplation and prayer until the end of his days. From an old Ephrata manuscript it is learned that from the outset the plan for seclusion in the forest was strenu- ously opposed by the residents of the German Township.
It seems that various members had made so good an im- pression upon the people amongst whom they were tem- porarily quartered that when the time came for them to resume their communal life, considerable opposition arose against it. Arguments were advanced by the citizens that " they were not entrusted with talents to be hid in a napkin, and that the obligations they were under for their valuable inheritance should constrain them to render themselves useful in the promotiou of vital truth for the benefit of mankind.
The old manuscript further states that against these arguments all persuasion proved futile, and no sooner were the people forced to relinquish the hope of retaining the services and eloquence of the Theosophical students than many branded them as fanatics and self-righteous hypo- crites.
However, that in the end they triumphed and obtained the goodwill of the greater portion of the community, is shown by the letter of Daniel Falkner, written to Germany under date of August 7, , wherein he also gives the intentions of the Fraternity, viz. We place this to the public good, and expect not a fool's breadth on our own account.
For we are resolved, besides giving public in- struction to the little children of this country, to take many of them to ourselves and have them day and night with us, so as to lay in them the foundation of a stable, permanent character. With them beginning must be made, otherwise there will be only mending and patching of the old people.
To learn to read English, four shillings a quarter ; to write, six shillings, etc. It will Muhlenberg's Tribute. In addition to their other labors a piece of ground was cleared and a large garden cultivated for their own support. Considerable attention was also given to growing and acclimating medicinal herbs krauter , which was probably the first systematic effort made to raise European medicinal plants for curative purposes in America.
The public school system, under the auspices of the Friends, of which George Keith was the first preceptor, was started about ; but it was not founded on a firm basis until chartered in George Keith had printed by William Bradford for use in his school a short catechism. The title-page of this unique book is reproduced in reduced fac-simile. A complete reproduction of the only known copy was made by the writer for the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. A former writer upon this community well says, "Thus amid the rugged rocks and wild scenery of the Wissa- hickon, surrounded by the tall forest trees in beautiful groves, God's first temples, these Her- mits of the Ridge were wont to commune with their God.
Symbol of the Ephrata Community. For this purpose public devotional services, ad- vocating Christian love and unity, were held every morning and evening in the large room or saal of the Tabernacle, to which all were invited. Visitors, no matter of what nationality or whence they came, were received with much cordiality by the brethren, and made to feel welcome. Einfaltig A-B-C Biichel, etc. Sirieffe tins Cerai 1. It is from the only known copy, in the library of Hon.
It was this feature that led to the Fraternity being called "The Woman in the Wilderness. But the real reason was that the Brotherhood believed and taught in their exhortations, as well as in their explanations of the Apocalypse, that the Woman in the Wilderness men- tioned in Revelation xii, , was prefigurative of the great deliverance that was then soon to be displayed for the Church of Christ. The appellation, however, was never acknowledged by the Frater- nity, as, in accordance with their mystical teachings and precepts, they desired to live in comparative seclusion, without name and, above all, sectarianism, in love and religious harmony with all men, at the same time looking after the spiritual welfare of the general com- munity, while perfecting themselves in their Theosophical and esoteric speculations as to the expected millennium.
A curious entry, corroborative of the above, appears in an old Ephrata manuscript, and states, that " while giving up In Rosicrucian Theosophy this emblem typifies the " Celestial Eve," representing Theo-Sophia, divine wisdom, or nature in her spiritual aspect. Emblem of the Eve," from Ancient MS.
They professed love and charity toward all denominations, but desired to live without name or sect. The old manuscript goes on to state that the Brotherhood, in using that peculiar part of the Holy writ, showed deep thinking and much ingenuity. As she the deliverer was to come up from the wilderness leaning on the Beloved, so [they] the beloved in the wilderness, laying aside all other engagements and trimming their lamps and adorning them- selves with holiness that they might be prepared to meet the same with joy, did well to observe the signs and the times and every new phenomenon, whether moral or pre- ternatural, of meteors, stars, and the color of the skies: It was this last state after which they were seeking as the highest degree of holiness.
To obtain it they believed it very essential to dwell in the solitude or in the wilderness. Hence they were termed by others "The Society of the Woman in the Wilderness. In their intercourse with the aborigines they attempted to ascertain to a certainty whether they were actually the descendants of the ten lost tribes of Israel, which at that time was almost universally believed.
To settle this much disputed question, special efforts were made to find out whether the different tribes of Indians kept the seventh day Sabbath or Saturday holy, and, if so, how they kept it. They also instituted investi- gations as to whether there were any philosophers or " wise men" among the any system of phil how they practised were, and if they of the heavens ; also Indians observed of the extraordinary tial or celestial ; them ever showed inspiration or in motus puta intrin whether among the Mithraic Symbol.
A systematic educational movement was also started by Kelpius among the Germans. Thus it will be seen that the mystic Brotherhood by no means passed their time in idle speculation and indolence. The scriptural injunction to labor six days of the week was strictly complied with, as was also the one to keep the Sabbath holy. To their lasting honor be it said that all services of a spiritual, educational, and medical nature were given free, without price or hope of fee or reward. There is ground for belief that in more than one instance internal dissension manifested itself in the Community, in which Kelpius was called upon to act as general peacemaker.
The brethren would have been saints indeed, if, under the stress of their peculiar life, jealousies and bickerings had not arisen.
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But on the whole, the unity seems to have been fairly well maintained, and the Society of the Woman in the Wilderness struck root deeply in the soil. Johann Jacob Zimmer- mann. They had been fellow-passengers across the ocean. Their example was followed by several other members during the first year or two. These defections, however, were not serious, nor by any means the greatest trouble that confronted the leaders of this experimental movement in practical theosophy. The first question to arise after the consecration of the Tabernacle in the Forest was the erratic and dictatorial course pursued by Koster and his few adherents in the Community.
Koster, in addition to being a devout, austere enthusiast, was a fearless and impulsive man ; and, as before stated, lost no time in extending his ministrations from Germantown to Philadelphia, where he preached and ex- horted both in German and English. While in Phila- delphia he became more or less involved in the Keithian controversy, which was then agitating the Quakers through- out the Province.
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Koster, aggressive and belligerent as he was, without delay took sides with the partisans of George Keith, and whenever preaching to the Keithians lost no opportunity to widen the breach that existed between them and the Orthodox Friends. As an old German manuscript states, " He gradually led them from the ways of the Quakers, farther and farther into the lanes that ended in the true path. As the Orthodox Friends, immediately upon the de- parture of Keith and prior to the arrival of Koster, had commenced a strong effort to heal the schism that then existed in their community and bring back the seceders, Koster's action did not tend to improve the religious situation in Philadelphia.
His im- passioned and outspoken utterances gave fresh courage to the oppos- ing party, and emboldened them to esoteric Symbol. All the bitterness of the old strife was thereby revived, and dissensions were once more rife in the different meetings throughout the Province. The stand taken by the German enthusiast in reference to the troubles of the Society of Friends, which also par- took somewhat of a political nature, was not only opposed by the latter, but also by his more conservative associates and bro- ther Mystics, who had naught but the best feelings toward the Quakers, and were always in full accord and sympathy with them.
Matters went along in this way for over a year, the breach grad- ually widening between Koster and his old associates as the time passed, and the former became more closely allied with William Davis and several XLZZ7 Rosicrucian Symbol. The Brethren in America. The sequel of the disagreement between Kelpius and Koster was the withdrawal of the latter and a few others from the original Community, who, together with a few of the Keithians, attempted, under the leader- ship of Koster, to form a new community of religious evangelists. Just how this ground was obtained is not known to a certainty, nor has the location been traced.
The old manuscript, before quoted states that it was purchased by Koster ; another account tells us that it was given to the new community. Be this as it may, a tabernacle or com- munity-house was built on the plot. This action of Koster, who, notwithstanding his erratic course, still adhered strictly to the Orthodox Lutheran doctrine in his religious services, had but little effect or influence upon the original Fraternity. Nowhere in the writings of Kelpius, Seelig, or Falkner is this defection of Koster thought worthy of mention. New York, ; p.
Under the spiritual guidance of Kelpius, and the judi- cious financial management of Daniel Falkner, the matter proved but a passing episode in the history of the Frater- nity, as it soon recovered from whatever setback it had received. In the subsequent controversy 12i between Koster and the leading Quakers, in which Francis Daniel Pastorius took so active a part, none of the other members of the original community became involved. The most important incident, from a literary point of view, after the formation of the " True Church of Phila- delphia" by Koster was the writing, in the fall or winter of the year , of a Datin thesis, " De Resurrectione Imperii JEternitatusf 1 a quarto of forty pages.
When the work was finished, as there was no printer in Pennsylvania at that time, he attempted to get it printed by William Brad- ford in New York. The printer declined the commission, as he could get no one to correct the printed sheets intel- ligently.
He attended the University of Strasburg in , went to the high school at Basle, and afterwards studied law at Jena. He was thoroughly familiar with the Greek, Latin, German, French, Dutch, English, and Italian tongues, and at the age of twenty-two publicly dis- puted in different languages upon law and philosophy. After practising law for a short time in Frankfort, he sailed for America from London, June 10, , and arrived in Philadelphia August 20th. His great learn- ing and social position at home made him the most conspicuous person in Germantown. He married, November 26, , Ennecke Klostermann.
He died leaving two sons. The full text of this extremely rare and almost forgotten work reads transla- tion: Succinct Axioms on the arising of the future eternity of the seven Hebrew vials or the sixth week [or Hebdomad] of the eternities, against the Beast and Babylon the great, to the union of the empire of the fullness of the nations with the Universal Church of the Israel that is to be saved; composed in the City of Philadelphia of America, on the border of great Cymry-Wales upon the ashes of the Indian husbandman of ancient Celt-Iberian or Celtic-Hebrew Spain, toward the close of the year ; in those days when, in the limits of the City and the whole region of Philadelphia, the first standard and public outcry against every arrogance and enthusiasm Spanish and Quaker was set up by the Philadelphian Union of the Un- armed Baptism of the primative churches 01 Asia reviving after the completed ages of Anti- christ, in this candlestick [candelabrum] or upon return of the sixth spirit- ual day with the temperate rule of the British Church -sophar," or sacred trumpet.
Demonstrated and now pub- licly promulgated through the Hebrew- Waldensian or third entrance, by Henry Bernhard Koster studious 01 the unlocked Prophecy of the Hebrews. Lemgo [in Lippe Detmold], printed by Wilhelm Meyer, Great was the disap- pointment of Koster, upon the com- pletion of the thesis, when he found that the work could not be printed in America.
Upon his return to Europe he, however, lost no time in having the manuscript put into print. A number of these copies were sent to his friends and late associates in America. The only known copy of this work is now in the library of the writer.